by Paolo Manzelli <firstname.lastname@example.org>
–>New understanding of interactions between gut bacteria and the immune system, and brain behavior : one of the issues of the FUTURE HORIZON OF NUTRITION ( e.g. FUHONU Project 2013).
The innovation of FUHONU project consists mainly in the study of the homeostatic resilience of the metabolic symbiosis existing between personal genetics and the genetic composition of gut bacteria. The ten years of research of such genome/microbiome symbiosis has recently concluded that each person develop a personal symbiontic profile of the species and composition of microbes living in the gut ( Microbiota).
Knowiing this result the FUHONU research would understand how Gut-microbioma of the intestinal tract develop the primary food metabolism and nutritional absorption of food components and viceversa how changing diets has a significant influence on modulating the genetic composition of bacteria.(Microbiome)
The Gut Brain Axis.
The microbiome which naturally inhabit the gut has a control by the brain to establish an individual genetic symbiosis so that each person responds to a change in diet within modalities that varies from individual to individual. The healthy symbiosis it is essential to the development of a strong acquired immune system. Therefore the project FUHONU, focusing nutritional attention to the construction of an “Healthy Gut Symbiosis” has studied how the symbiosis begins from an early stage and after it is maintained during all the life giving beneficial health effects throughout the development of a gut immune system , thus getting the better defense from diseases of the vital organs of the body and the brain. New concept and researchers on Gut-Microbiome and immunity as a result recently has changed the therapeutic approach of the use of antibiotics , this because drugs modulate deeply the microbiome composition and modify the gut-metabolism of nutrients and their relationship with the immunity system. The immunity system react and attach the metabolic production of not recognizable molecules provoking bowel inflammation that can become chronic , releasing cytokines in the blood flux, thus provoking a cascade of diseases in the organs (as heart, liver, etc) influencing obesity of the body and getting also brain impairments ( as depression , anxiety , etc). Therefore to prevent or to restore an healthy gut microbiome it is important to study the complex ways in wich the brain control the Genome/Microbiome symbiosis and as a consequence the homeostasis of the gut metabolism; viceversa those studies would understand how the “dysbiosis” alter the gut-brain axis communication producing disorders in brain functionality and behavior . (2) The gut microbiota interact with the CNS through enteric neurons and hormones and immune pathways and thereby the reciprocal activities of “gut–brain axis” effects the manner in which the digestion is made, and impact strongly to satiety ,emotions and stress. Thus dysfunction of the bidirectional cross talk of “gut brain axis” can have patho-physiological important consequences (3) This year Egocreanet and the CeRA of the University of Florence realizes a project on the new frontiers of FUTURE HORIZON of NUTRITION, focusing the “Gut Brain Axis” to study this important functionality which extends from peri- and post-natal periods to get during the life a perspective of a healthy ageing. This because that axis communication controls the Genome//Microbiome symbiosis in order to produce an effective developmental programming about the relationships between eating /drinking/and other environmental factors in relation to the origins of health and disease during all the life. (4)
The Development of the microbiome starts in early life beginning at birth with a large number of bacteria colonizing the “Gastro Intestinal Tract” immediately, before are includes the aerobic while the anaerobic bacteria colonize later with a prevalence location in the ileo .Thus within the first few days of life, humans are colonized by commensal intestinal microbiota, so that in less than one month, the infant begins to be completely colonized, ultimately creating a rich and diverse microenvironment that is become different depending by nutritional sources ( at beginning the artificial or mother’s milk) and also the microbiota composition are different if the baby born transiting through the vaginal tract of the mother or by caesarean section. The progressive symbiosis between genome and microbiome is co-developed through an interactive co-evolution of complex cross talk of “gut brain axis”. This interactive communication is based on the “bio-cenosis principle”, thus from an exchange of reciprocal metabolic benefices and it depends from various factors ,changing during the life, as well as: sex, age, diet, exercise, living environment, antibiotic treatments, disease history, and finally genetic heterogeneity.
So that too much are the variables to interpret by simple criteria of the Genome/ Microbiome symbiosis , but in spite of such variability of different causes it is important to get an healthy gut homeostasis to understand the modes of its stability and resilience in order to prevent the dysbiosis.
As matter of facts Gut-Dysbiosis can lead to immune dysregulation producing a state of chaos or imbalance among the symbiotic control of microorganisms. Gut-Dysbiosis, for instance, provokes by antibiotics or other external sources, provokes a change in the intestinal permeability(e.g Laeaki Gut) modifying the composition of the bacteria in the mucus that is covering the internal gut barrier.Such alteration of intestinal permeability favor the immunologic attack of not recognizable transit of molecules and the result is a bowel inflammation. If the bowel inflammation become a chronic syndrome , this increase the production of endo-toxins and other bio-toxins as cytokines and so tha the last, circulating in the blood flux, extend very fast the inflammation . Thus Gut-Dysbiosis can lead to any number of physiological and psychological problems throughout the body and brain, and it can be responsible for simultaneously symptoms of complex health diseases that are in relation to the metabolic functions of all organs of the body and the brain .If the bowel inflammation become a chronic syndrome , this increase the production of endo-toxins and other bio-toxins as cytokines and so tha the last, circulating in the blood flux, extend very fast the inflammation .Thus Gut-Dysbiosis can lead to any number of physiological and psychological problems throughout the body and brain, and it can be responsible for simultaneously symptoms of complex health diseases that are in relation to the metabolic functions of all organs of the body and the brain .
In this way we know how Gut-Dysbiosis can provoke chances in normal healthy of body-organs and brain function. Besides the duration of this altered status of abnormal communication signaling can be reinforced in a bidirectional ways, by stress-related behaviors degenerating in chronic diseases as obesity and other co-morbidities and brain impairments. The last responsible for symptoms varied as stress, depression, anxiety and asthmatic wheezing etc. Hence to avoid dangerous dys-biosis it is important to better understand how the gut and the brain are closely connected, and that how this interaction plays an important part not only in gastrointestinal function but also in certain feeling and behavioral states and in intuitive decision making, that are deeply rooted in our wellbeing.
-Taste Receptors one way of control of communication signaling of the Gut Brain Axis.
The intestine contains receptors of taste:just as we feel in the central brain (CNS) the taste of the food for the ‘activation receptors of the tongue. Similarly the enteric nervous system (ENS) receive information from a network of receptors , similar to those of the tongue; besides similar taste-receptors resides not only in the digestive system of the intestine but also in the heart, lungs and brain. Through this complex pathways of taste-receptors living in the digestive tract, may be developed a communication of the interface between brain and gut. This cross-talk permits to the brain to receive a sampling of information on the metabolic products processed by numerous bacteria which are present in the various levels of digestion. We know that the brain consumes 20% of the ‘oxygen used by the whole body, thus to control the “gut brain axis” communication the central brain may use the placement of the network of taste receptors in various organs and utilizing the communications routes between the gut and the brain (as vagus nerve and spinal cord communication. . etc.), in order to receive constant information on the amount of oxygen absorption and transit in the blood of the lungs, and also the rate of blood flow pumped by the heart in the veins and finally to know the status of absorption of nutrients in the intestinal motility, and other data needed to harmonize the complex function metabolic disorders.
Knowledge of the location of taste receptors in various organs is recent. Already since 2007, and ‘was found the existence of two receptors taste that have a role in responses of glucose sensor in intestinal lumen (Jang, Kokrashvili, et al. 2007 Proc Natl Acad SciUSA 104:15069-15074). Today it will be possible to find many articles and news that highlight how a network of taste receptors that are scattered in various vital organs related not only to power the satisfaction in eating, but more specifically to control the healthy status of the various organs including the gut-microbe symbiosis .Thus it seems possible that the repertoire of taste receptors expressed in the intestine, in particular in the colon and in the small intestine, can be correlated with those having a direct between tongue and brain in order that central brain can take a multiple decision not only about satiety but also to the other associated interactive information obtained by the extensive network of taste receptors giving a networking interactive relationships that it is based on a complex communication that may acts also for favoring a personalized behavior to food intake. Many of these taste receptors of intestine seem to be completely similar to those of the various sensations of bitter and acid and also sweet and umami in the mouth. The reception and transmission of those mutual information between the brain and intestine through the network of taste receptors is very selective, as it is believed capable of being sensitive to metabolites of plant origin from those composed of amino acids. In fact various research sustain that taste receptors in the intestinal tract are designed to detect specific classes of chemicals and to transmit signals to the enteric brain and finally favoring the complete gut-brain axis interactivity. Therefore, the taste receptors scattered in intestine seems to take on a role as a monitor of the symbiosis stability between the metabolic function of the microbiome with those controlled by our genome. Thus for having an healthy gut it is very important that Central Brain can be informed promptly, about the gut- microbiome homeostasis and the changes related to the dynamic co-organization between genome and microbiome .In fact brain stores data and memorize how to control the homeostasis through using vagus nerve in order to analyze the dynamics of all steps of the digestive system. Through the information of taste receptors in the intestinal tract we know that also the fecal fermentation can be monitored in some way yet to permit to the interaction of Enteric and Central brains to investigate distinct advantage of the symbiosis between intestinal bacteria and human host .Therefore recent neurobiological insights into this gut–brain interactive crosstalk have revealed the importance of genome/microbiome symbiosis that not only ensures the proper maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis and digestion, but is likely to have multiple impact on affect, motivation and higher cognitive functions, including intuitive decision making. Moreover we know that dys-biosis produces disturbances of “gut-brain axis” communication system and this have been implicated in a wide range of disorders, including functional and inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and other eating disorders.
In conclusion may be possible during the progress of the project FUHONU, to implement the research on “gut-brain axis” by verify such knowledge and hypothesis, about the networking of communication that takes place through taste receptors distribution in various organs of the body and the brain . The expected results of such FUHONU research-progress may play a role in the optimization of knowledge of the digestive process, through better understanding as the taste receptors network can customize diets personalization and consequently getting a better nutritional well-being and the mental and physical health in our lives.
BIBLIO ON LINE on GUT Brain Axis:
(1)- Nutra Scienza : http://www.facebook.com/groups/195771803846822/(2)- Gut –Brain Axis : https://dabpensiero.wordpress.com/2013/01/08/gut-brain-axis/
(3)- GUT MICROBIOME AND PREVENTION OF HEALTH : http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Biology%20/%20Medicine/Download/4506
(4)- Future Horizon of Nutrition : http://gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Essays-Biology%20/%20Medicine/Download/4474
–Biblio online on Taste Receptors: :